All About Vinyl Flooring

All About Vinyl Flooring

Durable and easy to maintain, this practical, affordable floor covering is continually improving in looks and performance

We love the historic appeal of floors covered with wood, stone, or ceramic. But let’s face it: These materials can be high in cost, low in comfort, and often require more care than we have time or energy for. That’s why the smart money is often on vinyl. This durable flooring shrugs off street grit, pointy heels, and sloppy spills while providing a slip-resistant and often cushiony footing that doesn’t cost an arm and a leg. No wonder you find vinyl in almost every American home—usually in kitchens, baths, and entryways.

This category of resilient flooring encompasses an array of products, including sheets, tiles, and planks made of flexible PVC; rigid tiles that combine vinyl and ground limestone; and soft, ruglike sheets that are woven from vinyl-coated fiberglass strands.

Popularized in the mid 20th century, vinyl flooring is still evolving. It’s more durable—many companies offer lifetime warranties—and can be installed faster than earlier versions. Patterns and textures convincingly mimic their old-school competitors or boldly go in a more modern direction. And in response to health concerns, some flooring is now certified to meet strict standards for indoor air quality. When a flooring is this versatile and has so many looks, who needs a historic pedigree?

Pictured: It looks like limestone tile, but this floor is actually a textured vinyl sheet, a practical water-resistant pick for bathrooms.

Anatomy of a Vinyl Sheet

This flooring, the most popular type, is created layer by layer.

1. Top Coat

Adds sheen as it protects the wear layer.

2. Wear Layer

Safeguards the pattern layer.

3. Pattern Layer

Supplies the sheet’s color and its looks.

4. Cushion Layer

Adds bounce and texture.

5. Fiberglass

Keeps the sheet flat.

6. Base Layer

Supports all layers.


How much does it cost?

Vinyl sheets range from 75 cents to $4 per square foot. Tiles typically cost $1 to $8 per square foot. Planks run about $5 per square foot. In each case, installation is extra.

DIY or hire a pro?

Homeowners can install most tiles and planks themselves. Let a pro lay sheet flooring.

How long will it last?

Warranties on vinyl flooring run from five years to as long as you own the house.

How much care does it need?

Vacuum regularly and mop with soapy water to remove grime and keep colors bright. Do not use abrasives, bleach, or ammonia. Wipe up spills to prevent stains.

Where to buy it?

Home centers and flooring retailers sell a variety of tiles, sheets, and planks, and can recommend an installer if the type you choose isn’t DIY-friendly.

Vinyl Type: Sheet

Invented in 1958, this pro-installed flooring goes down fast and has few, if any, seams. Combines PVC for toughness; fiberglass for stability; foam gel for comfort, texture, and insulation; and urethane for durability. Because of its weight, it can simply be loose laid over a subfloor, or glued down for more permanence.

Vinyl Type: Tiles and Planks

These DIY-friendly products go through a manufacturing process similar to the one for vinyl sheets, but they come out harder and stiffer. Glue them down, or join them at the edges and let them “float” over the subfloor.

Vinyl Type: Composition Tile (VCT)

Made with a no-flex mix of vinyl and ground limestone, these tough 12-by-12-inch tiles are commonly used in schools and other institutions. It has to be glued down. Installation is unforgiving because there’s no grout and every tile has to be flush with its neighbors; get a pro to do it.

Vinyl Type: Woven

Strands of fiberglass are encapsulated in vinyl and woven into soft, textured sheets that can be glued down or loose laid. Naturally springy, it’s stain resistant and easy to clean, and it won’t deteriorate when left outdoors.

Durability: Good

Overall thickness: 0.080 inch

Wear-layer thickness: 10 mils

Warranty: 10 years

Other attributes: Urethane top coat has built-in stain protection.

Durability: Better

Overall thickness: 0.100 inch

Wear-layer thickness: 10 mils

Warranty: 15 years

Other attributes: Realistic texture mimics underlying stone, wood, or tile pattern.

Durability: Best

Overall thickness: 0.125 inch

Wear-layer thickness: 15 mils

Warranty: 25 years

Other attributes: Special urethane top coat offers enhanced protection against stains and microbes.

Is It Healthy?

A chief selling point of vinyl flooring is that it’s easy to clean, an obvious health benefit. In addition, some manufacturers top their products with antimicrobial coatings or embed wear layers with particles of silver, a potent germ killer.

The knock against vinyl has more to do with indoor air quality. This is due to the potentially lung-irritating and headache-inducing VOCs that are off-gassed by vinyl flooring and the glues traditionally used to hold it down. If you want to breathe easy, choose FloorScore-certified coverings and adhesives, which meet the building industry’s most stringent indoor-air-quality standards.

Style: Sheet

Widths range from 6 to 15½ feet. Choose one that fits your floor with the fewest seams.

Seagrass Strands

Two layers of foam give this textured flooring extra springiness.

Classic Curves

The “grout lines” are recessed, just as with real ceramic tiles.

Luxe Limestone

It has the appearance of pricey tiles but without the expense or hard-to-clean grout.

Multicolor Stripes

Plant-based ingredients keep this woven sheet supple.

Quarried Slate

The colors and textures of stone are captured in vinyl.

Style: Tile

Sizes start at 6-inch squares and go up to 24 inches.

Wood Block

It looks like it’s made of beefy end-grain cherry blocks, but it’s only ⅛-inch-thick vinyl.

Metallic Shine

An acrylic floor finish maintains this tile’s silvery lustre .

Rich Veins

Irregular edges need to be grouted, adding to this tile’s stonelike realism.

Sky Blue

Vinyl gives VCT squares their vibrant color and stain resistance.

Style: Plank

Embossed strips, 3 and 4 feet long, allow you to have a floor that looks and feels like wood for a fraction of the cost.

Stained Hickory

Glue these planks down, or lock their edges together to make a floating floor.

Bleached Walnut

Each plank of this floating floor sticks to its neighbor.

Five Ways to Cover a Floor

A pro should tackle sheets, both loose laid and glue down, but DIYers can install most tiles and planks. Here are the details to help you choose the right method.

Peel-and-Stick Backs

Factory-applied adhesive secures tiles to concrete, wood, or existing flooring. Easy for DIYers to put down, but surface prep is critical to get a strong bond.

Peel-and-Stick Edges

Adhesive strips on the edges of tiles and planks create a floating floor that’s simple to install and doesn’t depend on the condition of the subfloor to stay bonded.

Click-and-Lock Edges

Tiles and planks with this feature snap together without adhesive, so they float over the subfloor. DIY-friendly, as long as the surface is dead flat.

Loose Laid

For heavy sheets made with rubbery backings, double-sided tape holds edges in place. Best if installed by a pro.

Glue Down

If you want to keep your tile or sheet floor indefinitely, bed it in a trowel-applied adhesive over a clean, dry surface.

Where to Use It: Kitchens

From the start, cooking spaces have been the favorite place to put vinyl because it doesn’t mind messy spills, dropped pots, or frequent cleaning.

Where to Use It: Kids’ Rooms

Vinyl is a thrifty, fun way to dress up play areas and bedrooms. And crayon scribbles wipe away easily.

Where to Use It: Bathrooms

Seamless sheets offer the best protection from splashes. Vinyl does become slippery when wet, so make sure a bath mat is in place before stepping out of a tub.

Where to Use It: Utility Rooms

Vinyl flooring can bear the brunt of all the dirt, snow—and, yes, muck—tracked into mudrooms, or the detergent and water spills in laundry areas.

Where to Use It: Finished Basements

Vinyl has no qualms about the dampness commonly found in rooms that are below grade.

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